In-text references to source materials are placed inside brackets. The reference must include the author’s last name (or if not available, the title of the publication or the first words if the title is very long), the publishing year and, possibly, page number(s). Page numbers are stated when the reference is clearly based on certain pages in the source material. Note that the author's initial is not stated in in-text references, only in the list of references at the end of the thesis.
When the reference is to various parts in the source material, or when referring to the entire publication, page numbers need not be stated. If the source has chapter identifications but no page numbers, in-text references can state the chapter. If a source is cited in one sentence only in the body text, the reference is placed at the end of the sentence in brackets followed by a full stop outside the closing bracket. However, If the same source is cited in multiple sentences in one paragraph, the reference is placed after the last full stop inside brackets followed by another full stop inside the closing bracket. These instructions apply to both printed and electronic sources.
Below, four sample cases of consecutive sentences are presented to illustrate the most common instances of in-text referencing. Pay close attention to the punctuation.
Acronyms and expressions such as 'e.g.', 'see' and 'cf.' can be used with careful consideration, but they should not be overused. The acronym 'e.g.' stands for 'for example' (exempli gratia). The word 'see' is used to prompt the reader to look for similar information in the stated source. The abbreviation 'cf.' refers to sources that present somewhat differing information. There is not one rule for writing full stops with these kinds of acronyms ('e.g.', 'eg.' or 'eg'), but the selected alternative should be used consistently.
Author's surname Year, Pages
If a source is cited in one sentence only in the body text, there are two options depending on the sentence structure.
1. The reference is placed at the end of the sentence in brackets followed by a full stop outside the closing bracket.
Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash 2019, 21–24).
2. The reference is inserted as part of the narrative.
According to Asmelash (2019, 21–24), heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens.
Author's surname Year, Pages
If the same source is cited in multiple sentences in one paragraph, the reference is placed after the last full stop inside brackets followed by another full stop inside the closing bracket.
In his discussion about the challenges the logistics professionals are facing today, Juan D. Morales states that today’s logistics require not only the ability to organise the transport of goods but also a good command of new technology. This makes the field quite different from what it was 20 years ago. Also, today the goods may be easily delivered from wherever to wherever, within one city or between continents. (Morales 2015, 46.)
Whenever an author is known, all in-text references must be made to her or his surname, accompanied by the year of publication and page number(s). The page number can be omitted if the reference is to the content of the source in general rather than a specific passage in it. The initial is omitted from in-text references and only provided in the list of references.
As for the the challenges the logistics professionals are facing today, it has also been stated that today’s logistics require not only the ability to organise the transport of goods but also a good command of new technology (Morales 2015, 46).
If the source was made by two authors, both must be stated in the reference. The surnames are separated by the &-symbol inside brackets and by the word 'and' if the authors are presented as part of the narrative.
When discussing the issue of the British press, it has been argued that its nature is to portray English football supporters as soldiers fighting for a cause, rather than spectators (Crolley & Hand 2002, 24).
Crolley and Hand (2002, 24) argue that the nature of the British press is to portray English football supporters as soldiers fighting for a cause, rather than spectators.
If a source has more than two authors, the in-text reference introduces the first surname and after that the abbreviation 'et al.' is used. If this is not sufficient to distinguish between two sources in the list of references, another surname must be added to make the reference unambiguous.
Note that the use of 'et al.' as part of the narrative requires that the verb takes the plural 3rd person conjugation form.
It has been frequently emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Hallis et al. 2017, 41).
Jones, Berquist et al. (2011, 41) emphasise that citations in a text should be consistent.
Also, in the international context, the writer should consistently follow either the British or American spelling and vocabulary conventions (Jones, Fitzpatrick et al. 2011, 27).
Also, as is discussed at length by Jones, Fitzpatrick et al. (2011, 27), the writer should consistently follow either the British or American spelling and vocabulary conventions.
If the source has no author, it is identified in the list of references either by its title or publisher. The in-text references must always show this identifier. If the identifier on the list of references is a long title, it can be shortened in in-text references with the ellipsis (...).
A common misconception concerning critical thinking is that it is propelled by negative attitude (Royal Literary Fund 2018).
A comprehensive study was conducted of students learning to format research papers (Using Citations 2001).
Long title shortened (in the list of references, the title must be presented in full):
Occasionally, it has been rather obvious that health service providers have underestimated the magnitude of homelessness, particularly in rural communities. (The Effects of Homelessness... 2015).
(Title in full: The Effects of Homelessness on Adults and Children in Suburban Populations)
The different publications published by one author in the same year are identified with lower-case letters (a, b, c etc.) with no space between the year and the id letter.
Research by Berndt (1981a) revealed strong correlations. However, a parallel study (Berndt 1981b) resulted in inconclusive findings.
Sources with no page numbers and no chapters
If the mere idea of peeling onions appears extremely repulsive, one has the right to be somehow otherwise engaged in the process (Saywhat 2020).
Sources with no page numbers but with chapters
Author Year, Chapter identifier: Chapter title
Game loop can be considered a fundamental game pattern (Nystrom 2014, Chapter 9: Game Loop).
If the year of publication is not presented, write 'n.d.' ('no date') in the in-text citation.
According to Stanley (n.d.), every effort should be made to establish a date for a source used in an academic paper.
If the reference is indicated at the end of a sentence, use punctuation as follows:
a) Reference in one sentence only
It is common practice that every effort should be made to establish a date for a source used in an academic paper (Stanley, n.d.).
b) Reference in multiple sentences
Also, it is common practice that every effort should be made to establish a date for a source used in an academic paper (Stanley, n.d.)
If you use multiple sources with no dates by the same author, use letters a, b, c to differentiate between sources. However, the consistent lack of dates is a little dubious from the academic point of view so consider carefully before citing these sources. Place a full stop after the identifier only when the reference is to multiple sentences.
According to Stanley (n.d.a), every effort should be made to establish a date for a source used in an academic paper. He also emphasizes the importance of verifying facts (Stanley, n.d.b).
The importance of verifying facts is also emphasized (Stanley, n.d.b.)
Within one paragraph, it is possible to replace the author and year in consecutive references to different pages of the same source by the word 'ibid.' The 'ibid.' always refers back to the latest previous full reference so as soon as a second source is referenced in the paragraph, 'ibid.' can no longer be used with reference to the first source.
Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word "ibidem" which literally means "in the same place".
One should use 'ibid.' very sparingly and prefer full references.
It has been suggested that a prolonged presence in an enclosed space will most likely affect the pitch of one's laughter (Blur and Suede 2017, 25). Furthermore, the maintenance of coherent dialogue in such an environment will often require considerable efforts (ibid. 36).
If the source has no author and a long title is used as a reference, the title can be shortened for in-text references with the ellipsis (...). However, in the list of references, the title must be presented in full.
The shortening must not lead to confusion. If two articles with no authors published in 2015 are stated in the list of references with respective titles of "The Effects of Homelessness on Adults and Children in Suburban Populations" and "The Effects of Homelessness on Social Welfare Institutions in Nordic Countries", they can only be shortened after the first different word: (The Effects of Homelessness on Adults... 2015) and (The Effects of Homelessness on Social... 2015).
Occasionally, it has been rather obvious that health service providers have underestimated the magnitude of homelessness, particularly in rural communities. (The Effects of Homelessness on Adults... 2015).
Multiple sources in one in-text reference are separated by a semi-colon. The sources are presented either in alphabetical or chronological (from oldest to more recent) order. One of the options must be consistently used throughout the paper.
However, this view has been strongly criticized (Belle 2012; Hack 2018; Waczinyek 2015).
However, this view has been strongly criticized (Belle 2012; Waczinyek 2015; Hack 2018).
It is considered good academic practice to always have access to the original source and directly reference that source. If that is not possible, a primary source can sometimes be referenced via a secondary source. In other words, if John Doe's book cannot be directly accessed, it can be referred to via another author who discusses Doe's book.
The secondary reference is made by first stating the original author and year, and then indicating a secondary reference by phrase 'cited in' followed by the author and year of the secondary source.
Whenever a secondary source is used, only that is stated in the list of references, not the original source which could not be accessed.
Feelings of dissonance are inevitable if implicit values are denied in practice (Festinger 1957 cited in Skelton 2011, 258).
Festinger (1957 cited in Skelton 2011, 258) maintains that dissonance is inevitable if implicit values are denied in practice.
As a rule, in academic writing one must paraphrase from sources, rather than quote directly. Quotes are acceptable if they are used extremely sparingly and serve a valid purpose. Usually, a reasonable direct quote is rather short and introduces a particularly important or interesting idea that could lose some of the impact in paraphrasing.
A short quote (one sentence) is indicated by quotation marks.
This idea is further elaborated by Ahvenainen who states that the fear of evaluation can lead to a point where it is impossible to "maintain one’s language self-concept after learning what others seem to think about one’s language skills" (Ahvenainen 2021, 52).
A long quote is separated from the narrative by one empty line and indented by one click of tab key. The line spacing is reduced from 1.5 to 1.
As a rule, the same instructions apply to electronic sources as to printed sources. The in-text reference of an electronic source must match with the item on the list of references.
The primary in-text reference is Author Year, Possibly Pages. If the author is unknown, the reference is identified by the article's title. The name of the magazine or newspaper must not be used as an in-text reference identifier.
According to research made in the USA and UK (de Jong 2015), 47 per cent of middle-class jobs will become redundant due to robotics and new technologies.
Footage captured by drones provides a new perspective on the ‘Rock’ (Uluru like you never seen it 2016).
Acts and decrees
The titles of acts and decrees are always spelled with capital initials (apart from articles and prepositions).
Marriage Act 234/1929
Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life 759/2004
If you wish to make a reference to a specific part of the act, it is recommended that you do it in the narrative rather than as an end-of-sentence reference in brackets:
Chapter 5, Section 17, Paragraph 6 of the Act on the Protection of Privacy in Working Life (759/2004) states that a notification of camera surveillance must be displayed in all areas where cameras are located.
If you refer to national legislation (e.g. that of Finland), you should primarily use the official English translation. The official translations of Finnish acts and decrees are available at https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/.
State the content of the directive in the narrative (very often, e.g. in the sample below, the content is simply the name of the directive) and place the directive identifier in brackets as the end-of-sentence reference:
In the EU directive on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment, priority is given to sustainable and non-toxic products and systems that can be re-used (Directive 2019/904).
Standard Identifier: Year
This procedure was standardized in Australia and New Zealand in 2016 (AS/NZS ISO 9001:2016).
Refer to patent holders in the same way as to authors of books.
Eventually, a patent was issued for a charging device for an electric car (Mager and Türk 2011).
It is possible to refer to the figures, tables and appendices of one's own paper, as well as to any other identifiable part. The identifier is always spelled with a capital initial. For punctuation, see tabs "Reference in one sentence" and "Reference in multiple sentences".
In a learning organisation, action, data gathering, evaluation and planning rotate in an endless cycle (Figure 8).
The questionnaire comprised several structured questions and one open-ended question. The open-ended question was aimed at gathering development suggestions from the staff. (Appendix 3.)
Since it was shown earlier (Chapter 2.2.) that a similar correspondence exists between XyX and XwX, it is reasonable to assume that XwX will also properly function in this scheme.
Television and radio
Director's/Producer's/Announcer's Surname Year
In a somewhat paradoxical way, participants in the competition are portrayed as collaborative (Bach & Elor 2019).
The two were strongly united in their unwavering belief that they were working for the benefit of their country (Tyykiluoto 2020).
Video and video game
He looks tired and uninspired and very little like someone who should be shortly going onto the stage (Elvis Presley Backstage 1977).
Sometimes the enemy is a piece of food, and the means of elimination is pepper (Burger Time 1983).