Siirry pääsisältöön

Referencing: Xamk instructions: Xamk referencing guide

This page provides instructions on how source references must be marked in body text and how a list of references is created in accordance with Xamk writing guidelines

What is the content of this guide?

This guide provides instructions on placing in-text references and creating a list of references in accordance with Xamk writing guidelines which are based on the Harvard referencing system. In the list of references, items are primarily placed in an alphabetical order according to the author's surname or, if no author is stated, the title of the source material or name of the publishing community. In addition to text references, guidance is provided on the proper citation of graphs, figures and illustrations.

In this guide, a separate tab is provided for guidance on the numerical index system (the Vancouver system). However, at Xamk this system is acceptable only in a limited number of engineering degree programmes.

This guide aims to offer support for the use of various types of sources. If you fail to find help for a particular type of source, inform your English teacher, and the guide will be updated. Beneath this info box, you will see the latest update notifications.


Edited online reference: "Accessed Day Month Year" - no punctuation after "Accessed" [1 Jun 2022]

Additional instructions on references to sources that have no date. [13 Jun 2022]

Saavutettavuusseloste | Accessibility statement