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Referencing: Xamk instructions: Sample list of references

This page provides instructions on how source references must be marked in body text and how a list of references is created in accordance with Xamk writing guidelines

Consult a sample list of references when making your own

The sample list of references presented below contains various types of sources. Follow the given models when you compose your own list of references.

Irrespective of the type of document, the list of references always starts a new page.

Whenever you enter an online source, the type of the document must be stated as presented in the examples below.

NOTE: Even though the Xamk style reference list is heavily based on the Harvard system, there are some differences in the use of punctuation and italicisation Therefore, follow the Xamk style presented below, not the Harvard style proper.

Sample list of references for Xamk assignments and theses (based on the Harvard style)

A family business in the wood product inductry will grow, if the entrepreneur’s motivation remains high. 2004. Wood Worker 2, 2−4.

Aziz, N. 2014. Cybergate RAT tutorial for beginners. Web page.
Available at: [Accessed 15 February 2017].

Branford, A. & Coutts, L. 2015a. The precious ring. Walker Books Australia. Newtown: NSW.

Branford, A. & Coutts, L. 2015b. The wishing seed. Walker Books Australia. Newtown: NSW.

Copyright Act 8 July 1961/404.

Council Directive 98/83/EC 3 November 1998. The quality of water intended for human consumption. Web page. Available at: [Accessed 5 February 2017].

Degree programme in Hospitality management. 2012. Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences. Video clip. Available at: aikuiset/palvelujen_tuottaminen_ja_johtaminen [Accessed 19 November 2015].

Fair Work Ombudsman. 2018. Did you know superannuation contributions need to be listed on pay slips? It’s a common error we see. @Fairwork_gov_au. Twitter. 21 May. Available at: [Accessed 26 May 2018].

Finland’s national plan for rare diseases. 2015. Reports and memorandums of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2015:45. PDF document. Available at: [Accessed 16 March 2017].

Fishman, R. 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. Ebook. Chester: Castle Press. Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2016].

Foot, G. 2019. Health drinks: turmeric. The best thing since sliced bread? Podcast. 20 February. Available at: [Accessed 27 February 2019].

Francey, S., Tran, H. & Berglin, N. 2011. Global survey on lime kiln operation, energy consumption and alternative fuel usage. Tappi Journal, 8, 19−26.

Graham, C. P., Fonti, L. & Martinez, A. M. American Sugar Co. 1972. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535.

Harrison, A., van Hoek, R. & Skipworth, H. 2019. Logistics Management and Strategy. Ebook. London: Pearson Education. Available at: [Accessed 19 September 2020].

Harvey, M. 2001. The nuts and bolts of college writing. Web page. Available at: [Accessed 6 August 2010].

Heikkinen, H.-M. 2017. Cargotec issues two bonds in the aggregate amount of EUR 250 million. Kauppalehti Stock Exchange release. 17 March 2017. Web page. Available at: [Accessed 19 March 2017].

Horowitch P. & Hill W. 1998. The art of the electronics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jacobsen, B. 2004. Organizing and displaying data. In Munro, B. (ed.) Statistical methods for health care research. 5th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 3–29.

Jolkku-Haukio, T. 2017. My doctor gave me his lip balm! Facebook update. Updated 10 January 2017. Available at: [Accessed 14 February 2017].

Kuure, T. 2013. A summer home remote alarm and control system implementation. South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. Degree programme in electrical engineering. Bachelor’s thesis. PDF document. Available at: [Accessed 20 November 2016].

Moradi, S. 2021. Project managers’ competencies in collaborative construction projects. Tampere University. Faculty of Built Environment. Doctoral dissertation. PDF document. Available at: [Accessed 10 June 2021].

Kuzmina, T. 2014. Osnovniie problemy processa sliyaniya kompaniy (The main problems of the merger process).  MGIMO. Available at: [Accessed 21 November 2014].

McKinsey&Company. 2016. Enduring ideas: The GE-McKinsey nine-box matrix. Web page. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 2016].

Speake, R. 2021a. Autonomous ships. Lecture. South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. Delivered 21 February 2021.

Speake, R. 2021b. Shipping in the Arctic. Lecture recording. South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. Delivered 5 March 2021.

Spencer, T. 2015. Product/Market expansion matrix. Blog. Available at: [Accessed 31 October 2016].

Spelling Guide. 2012. Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland.

Tekes. 2016. Small and large enterprises team up for business in the bioeconomy. Case examples. Web page. Available at: [Accessed 1 January 2017].

VirusTotal. 2017. VirusTotal. WWW page. Available at: [Accessed 15 February 2017].

Waters, D. (ed.) 2016. Global logistics. New directions in supply chain management. 5th edition. London: Kogan Pane.

WHO guidelines for indoor air quality. 2009. Dampness and mould. PDF document. Available at: [Accessed 17 March 2017].

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